Indicator Rationale

Walkability for transport is calculated based on three key factors: land use mix and services of daily living (something to walk to); street connectivity (a way to get there); and dwelling density (higher population densities are associated with increased populations needed to supply services and different land uses) (Giles-Corti et al., 2014). These factors influence how people move around their local neighbourhoods to complete everyday activities and the importance of access to supermarkets, convenience stores, petrol stations, newsagents and public transport stops in community design.

Extensive research literature has consistently shown that local neighbourhood design is an important influence of physical activity, health outcomes, social connectedness and sustainability (Saelens et al., 2003).

Relevant Sustainable Development Goals


Average distance to closest activity centre

Average dwelling density per hectare

Average street connectivity per square kilometre

Average number of daily living destinations present (0-3) within 1600 m

Walkability for Transport Index


The walkability index was calculated as the sum of standardised scores of local neighbourhood attributes including street connectivity, dwelling density and the index of access to services of daily living.

Street connectivity was calculated as the ratio of intersections to local walkable neighbourhood in square kilometres.

Dwelling density was calculated as the total number of dwellings located in Mesh Blocks intersecting each participant’s local walkable neighbourhood divided by the neighbourhood size in hectares.

Access to services of daily living was created using binary indicators which record the presence (=1) or absence (=0) to access to three destinations; supermarkets, public transport stops and convenience stores, within 1600m of the sample points using a pedestrian road network . A daily living index was created by summing the 3 binary indicators for each sample point.


Boulange C, Gunn L, Giles-Corti B, Pettit CJ, Badland H. (2017). Examining associations between urban design attributes and transport mode choices for walking, cycling, public transport and private motor vehicle trips. J Transport and Health

Giles-Corti, B., Mavoa, S., Eagleson, S., Davern, M., Roberts B., Badland, H.M., (2014). Transport Walkability Index: Melbourne. McCaughey VicHealth Centre for Community Wellbeing, Melbourne: The University of Melbourne.

Giles-Corti B, Macaulay G, Middleton N, Boruff B, Bull F, Butterworth I, Badland H, Mavoa S, Roberts R, Christian H. (2014). Developing a research and practice tool to measure walkability: a demonstration project. Health promotion journal of Australia : official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals. 25(3): 160-6

Gunn, L. D., Mavoa, S., Boulangé, C., Hooper, P., Kavanagh, A., & Giles-Corti, B. (2017). Designing healthy communities: creating evidence on metrics for built environment features associated with walkable neighbourhood activity centres. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity14(1), 1-12.

Saelens BE, Handy SL. (2008). Built environment correlates of walking: A review. MSSE. 40: S550-66

Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Black JB, Chen D. (2003). Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: an environment scale evaluation. American journal of public health, 93(9), 1552–1558.