Indicator Rationale

Access to fresh food provides residents with the opportunity to purchase nutritional foods which support healthy eating behaviours and lifestyles. Supermarkets are a common source of fresh healthy foods, but additionally, local retail outlets such as fruit and vegetable retailers (greengrocers) also provide important opportunities to purchase these types of foods. Additionally, living within easy walking distance of fresh food stores encourages and enables people to walk or cycle instead of driving and hence, reduces their risk of chronic disease. Most people will not regularly walk distances greater than 800m – 1km to destinations such as shops and services (Gunn, King, et al., 2017; Gunn, Mavoa, et al., 2017) especially if bulky purchases need to be carried.

Access to food is not always equitable throughout communities and some areas, known as ‘food deserts’, have limited or no access to foods. Food deserts force residents to be reliant on motorised transport and are of particular concern to those with limited mobility or in low socio-economic status areas where people may not be able to afford a private car.

Eating fast food on a regular basis may contribute to individuals becoming overweight or   obese, both of which are linked to an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and some cancers. Close proximity to fast food retailers, including those trading from food courts, may influence an individual’s diet, especially among those with walkable access.

Relevant Sustainable Development Goals


Percentage of dwellings without any food outlet within 3.2km

Percentage of dwellings within 1km of a supermarket

Average distance to closest healthy food outlet (supermarket or greengrocer)

Average distance to closest fast food outlet


The measures related to access to foods were created using point data representing the location of supermarkets, greengrocers and fast foods, a pedestrian road network and sample points.

The location of supermarkets and greengrocers was derived from OpenStreetMap and from five major supermarket chain websites, Aldi, Coles, Foodworks, IGA and Woolworths.

Pedestrian road network distances were calculated from each sample point to the closest type of food.


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Gunn L, King T, Mavoa S, Lamb K., Giles-Corti B, Kavanagh A. (2017). Identifying destination distances that support walking trips in local neighborhoods. Journal of Transport & Health, 5, 133-141

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